cicero de oratore 1 59

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cicero de oratore 1 59

Ellendt. The abilities of our countrymen (as we may judge from many particulars,) far excelled those of the men of every other nation. (6)   Alluding to the conspiracy of Catiline. 12. Textvorstellung und einführende Bemerkungen zum Text aus Ciceros de oratore. 96 . (1)   After his consulship, 63 B.C., in the forty-fourth year of his age. [49] If, therefore, the natural philosopher Democritus spoke with elegance, as he is reported to have spoken, and as it appears to me that he did speak, the matter on which he spoke belonged to the philosopher, but the graceful array of words is to be ascribed to the orator. 5; Gronov. Le cas de Cicéron est typique de l'ambiguïté de l'attitude romaine face à l'art grec; A partir de De Oratore, il considère de la même façon que pour la rhétorique, c'est l'assimilation de l'art grec dans l'art romain. Citations De Oratore, III, 22 Sélection de 1 citation et proverbe sur le thème De Oratore, III, 22 Découvrez un dicton, une parole, un bon mot, un proverbe, une citation ou phrase De Oratore, III, 22 issus de livres, discours ou entretiens. [53] For who is ignorant that the highest power of an orator consists in exciting the minds of men to anger, or to hatred, or to grief, or in recalling them from these more violent emotions to gentleness and compassion? {18.} Be the first one to write a review. he will consult with Sextus Pompeius, ** a man learned in philosophy. [17] A knowledge of a vast number of things is necessary, without which volubility of words is empty and ridiculous; speech itself is to be formed, not merely by choice, but by careful construction of words; and all the emotions of the mind, which nature has given to man, must be intimately known; for all the force and art of speaking must be employed in allaying or exciting the feelings of those who listen. [61] I do not know whether I may not be less successful in maintaining what I am going to say; but I shall not hesitate to speak that which I think. [95] For I, as far as I can divine by conjecture, and as far as I can estimate the abilities of our countrymen, do not despair that there may arise at some time or other a person, who, when, with a keener devotion to study than we feel, or have ever felt, with more leisure, with better and more mature talent for learning, and with superior labour and industry, he shall have given himself up to hearing, reading, and writing, may become such an orator as we desire to see, one who may justly be called not only a good speaker, but truly eloquent; and such a character, in my opinion, is our friend Crassus, or some one, if such ever was, of equal genius, who, having heard, read, and written more than Crassus, shall be able to make some little addition to it.". [64] L   "If, therefore, any one desires to define and comprehend the whole and peculiar power of an orator, that man, in my opinion, will be an orator, worthy of so great a name, who, whatever subject comes before him, and requires rhetorical elucidation, can speak on it judiciously, in set form, elegantly, and from memory, and with a certain dignity of action. {4.} 9.1", "denarius"). [42] In the first place, all the Pythagoreans, and the followers of Democritus, would institute a suit against you, with the rest of the natural philosophers, each in his own department, men who are elegant and powerful speakers, with whom you could not contend on equal terms. [45] L   Crassus then replied, "I am not ignorant, Scaevola, that things of this sort are commonly asserted and maintained among the Greeks; for I listened to their greatest men, when I came to Athens as quaestor from Macedonia, ** and when the Academy was in a flourishing state, as it was represented in those days, for Charmadas, and Clitomachus, and Aeschines were in possession of it. M. Tullius Cicero, De Oratore A. S. Wilkins, Ed. Ce texte parle de l'accusation de Verrès pour le pillage d'œuvres d'art grec en tant que gouverneur. Ellendt. Advers. ALLER A LA TABLE DES MATIÈRES DE CICÉRON . Click on ** to go to the translator's footnotes. Il en confia le manuscrit à Gasparini de Bergamen qui en fit faire une copie par Cosme de Crémone. In Cicero's Oration for Balbus, also, c. 21, 49, where the merits of that eminent commander are celebrated, Crassus is called his affinis, relation by marriage. Hide browse bar Your current position in the text is marked in blue. (30)   Orellius reads Haec--irrisit, where the reader will observe that the pronoun is governed by the verb. [60] I ask whether a speech can be made for or against a general, without an acquaintance with military affairs, or often without a knowledge of certain inland and maritime countries ? (31)   The Stoics called eloquence one of their virtues, See Quintilian, ii. Any comments. Buch (lateinischer Originaltext) Marcus Tullius Cicero. [82] For when I, who late in life, and then but lightly, touched upon Greek learning, was going as proconsul into Cilicia, and had arrived at Athens, I waited there several days on account of the difficulty of sailing; and as I had every day with me the most learned men, nearly the same that you have just now named, and a report, I know not how, had spread amongst them that I, like you, was involved in cases of great importance, every one, according to his abilities, took occasion to discourse upon the office and art of in orator. [18] Besides, the whole of antiquity and a multitude of examples is to be kept in the memory; nor is the knowledge of laws in general, or of the civil law in particular, to be neglected. Timaei, v. amphilaphes, and Manutius ad Cic. 5. {15.} Cicero's De Oratore is a detailed study of the techniques and skills required by the ideal orator, writen in 55 B.C. ← Book 2. . Cicero was augur, quaestor, aedile, praetor, consul, and proconsul of Asia. [40] I can remember that Servius Galba, a man of godlike power in speaking, as well as Marcus Aemilius Porcina, and Gnaeus Carbo himself, whom you defeated when you were but a youth, ** was ignorant of the laws, at a loss in the practices of our ancestors, and unlearned in civil jurisprudence; and, except you, Crassus, who, rather from your own inclination to study, than because it was any peculiar business of an orator, have learned the civil law from us, as I am sometimes ashamed to say, this generation of ours is ignorant of law. [94] L   "Then it was that I, swayed by this opinion, remarked in a little treatise ** which got circulated, and into people's hands, without my knowledge and against my will, that I had known many good speakers, but never yet any one that was truly eloquent; for I accounted him a good speaker, who could express his thoughts with accuracy and perspicuity, according to the ordinary judgment of mankind, before an audience of moderate capacity; but I considered him alone eloquent, who could in a more admirable and noble manner amplify and adorn whatever subjects he chose, and who embraced in thought and memory all the principles of everything relating to oratory. Traduction d'Athanase Auger, revue 694 + NOTES (bilingue) XXVIII. Click on ** to go to the translator's footnotes. (34)   Two Sicilians, said to have been the most ancient writers on rhetoric. After the kings were expelled (though we see that their expulsion was effected by the mind of Lucius Brutus, and not by his tongue), do we not perceive that all the subsequent transactions are full of wise counsel, but destitute of all mixture of eloquence? [69] The part of philosophy, therefore, regarding life and manners, must be thoroughly mastered by the orator; other subjects, even if he has not learned them, he will be able, whenever there is occasion, to adorn by his eloquence, if they are brought before him and made known to him. ("Agamemnon", "Hom. [72] But, as Gaius Lucilius used frequently to say (a man not very friendly to you, ** and on that account less close to me than he could wish, but a man of learning and good breeding), I am of this opinion, that no one is to be numbered among orators who is not thoroughly accomplished in all branches of knowledge requisite for a man of good breeding; and though we may not put forward such knowledge in conversation, yet it is apparent, and indeed evident, whether we are destitute of it, or have acquired it; [73] as those who play ball-games do not exhibit, in playing, the gestures of the palaestra, but their movements indicate whether they have learned those exercises or are unacquainted with them; and as those who shape out anything, though they do not then exercise the art of painting, yet make it clear whether they can paint or not; so in orations to courts of justice, before the people, and in the senate, although other sciences have no peculiar place in them, yet is it easily proved whether he who speaks has only been exercised in the parade of declamation, or has devoted himself to oratory after having been instructed in all liberal knowledge. To myself, also, there was a time ** when I thought that a season for relaxation, and for turning my thoughts again to the noble studies once pursued by both of us, would be fairly allowable, and be conceded by almost every one; if the infinite labour of forensic business and the occupations of ambition should be brought to a close, either by the completion of my course of honours, ** or by the decline of age. These points I then discussed with the philosophers in person at Athens, for Marcus Marcellus, our countryman, who is now curule aedile, obliged me to do so, and he would certainly have taken part in our present conversation, were he not now celebrating the public games; for he was then a youth marvellously given to these studies. Orat. Civili was an innovation of Ernesti, which Ellendt condemns, and retains civium; observing that Cicero means iura civium publica singulis ordinibus et aetatibus assignata. Click anywhere in the Full search Retrouvez de Oratore, Volume 1... et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. {14.} But Charmadas was very much in the wrong; for Gorgias, Isocrates, Protagoras, Theophrastus, and other teachers of rhetoric were eminent for eloquence. [41] L   "But what you assumed, as by a law of your own, in the last part of your speech, that an orator is able to speak fluently on any subject, I would not, if I were not here in your own estate, tolerate for a moment, but would head a party who should either oppose you by an interdict, ** or summon you to contend with them at law, for having so unceremoniously invaded the possessions of others. Is there any trace of eloquence apparent in Numa Pompilius, in Servius Tullius, or in the rest of our kings, from whom we have many excellent regulations for maintaining our government? {11.} {2.} ii. Click on the L symbols to go to the Latin text of each section. [67] Or if any subject presents itself, requiring him to speak on the nature and vices of men, on desire, on moderation, on continence, on grief, on death, perhaps, if he thinks proper, (though the orator ought to have a knowledge of these things.) [29] Then Crassus replied, "Nay, we will yet further consult your convenience," and called for cushions; when they all, said Cotta, sat down on the seats that were under the plane-tree. ", {17.} [12] This ought to seem the more wonderful, as attainments in other sciences are drawn from obscure and hidden springs; but the whole art of speaking lies before us, and is concerned with common usage and the custom and language of all men; so that while in other things that is most excellent which is most remote from the knowledge and understanding of the illiterate, it is in speaking even the greatest of faults to vary from the ordinary kind of language, and the practice sanctioned by universal reason. (22)   A Roman shipbuilder. … [47] But I neither assented to those men, nor to the originator of these disputations, and by far the most eloquent of them all, the eminently grave and oratorical Plato; whose 'Gorgias' I then diligently read over at Athens with Charmadas; from which book I conceived the highest admiration of Plato, as he seemed to me to prove himself an eminent orator, even in ridiculing orators. Ellendt. (5)   The civil wars of Marius and Sulla. Enter a Perseus citation to go to another section or work. changes, storing new additions in a versioning system. [79] But if there seem to you to be so much in me, to whom, though capacity, as you think, may not greatly have been wanting, yet to whom learning, leisure, and that keen application to study which is so necessary, have certainly been wanting, what do you think would be the case if those acquirements, which I have not gained, should be united to some greater genius than mine? [1] L   As I frequently contemplate and call to mind the times of old, those men in general seem to me, brother Quintus, to have been supremely happy, who, while they were distinguished with honours and the glory of their actions in the best days of the republic, were enabled to pursue such a course of life, that they could continue either in employment without danger, or in retirement with dignity. Click on ** to go to the translator's footnotes. Or what is so striking, so astonishing, as that the tumults of the people, the religious feelings of judges, the gravity of the senate, should be swayed by the speech of one man? {20.} 20. line to jump to another position: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License, http://data.perseus.org/citations/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0474.phi037.perseus-lat1:3.59, http://data.perseus.org/texts/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0474.phi037.perseus-lat1, http://data.perseus.org/texts/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0474.phi037, http://data.perseus.org/catalog/urn:cts:latinLit:phi0474.phi037.perseus-lat1. Od. One thing there will certainly be, which those who speak well will exhibit as their own; a graceful and elegant style, distinguished by a peculiar artifice and polish. Or if he has to speak on the civil law, he will consult with you, and will excel you, though eminently wise and learned in it, in speaking on those very points which he shall have learned from yourself. . But lest any one should think that the art of speaking may more justly be compared with other pursuits, which depend upon abstruse studies, and a varied field of learning, than with the merits of a general, or the wisdom of a prudent senator, let him turn his thoughts to those particular sciences themselves, and contemplate who and how many have flourished in them, as he will thus be best enabled to judge how great a scarcity of orators there is and has ever been. De oratore Cic.de orat.1,58-68 Auch spezielle Fachgebiete bedürfen der rhetorischen Durchdringung Cic.de orat.1,58-68: Auch spezielle Fachgebiete bedürfen nach Crassus der rhetorischen Durchdringung. De Oratore (On the Orator; not to be confused with Orator) is a dialogue written by Cicero in 55 BC. (26)   Nicander, a physician, grammarian, and poet, flourished in the time of Attalus, the second king of Pergamus, about (?) [74] L   Then Scaevola, smiling, said: "I will not struggle with you any longer, Crassus; for you have, by some artifice, made good what you asserted against me, so as to grant me whatever I refused to allow to the orator, and yet so as to wrest from me those very things again I know not how, and to transfer them to the orator as his property. The eloquence of those men whom you mentioned a little before, seems to me to be of a quite different sort, though they speak with grace and dignity, as well on the nature of things as on human life. I think, therefore, Crassus, that such great and numerous professions ought not to be made. [63] What Socrates used to say, that all men are sufficiently eloquent in that which they understand, is very plausible, but not true. Click on the L symbols to go to the Latin text of each section. [36] For who will concede to you, either that mankind, dispersed originally in mountains and woods, enclosed themselves in towns and walls, not so much from being convinced by the counsels of the wise, as from being charmed by the speeches of the eloquent? Artif. Cicéron. (25)   The uncle of Gnaeus Pompey the Great, who had devoted excellent talents to the attainment of a thorough knowledge of civil law, geometry, and the doctrines of the Stoics. i. The sacramentum was a deposit of a certain sum of money laid down by two parties who were going to law; and when the decision was made, the victorious party received his money back, while that of the defeated party went into the public treasury Varro, L. L. v. 180. Brut. xi. Cicerone - Rhetorica - De Oratore - Liber I - 59: Brano visualizzato 5844 volte [LIX] Nihilne igitur prodest oratori iuris civilis scientia? Perseus provides credit for all accepted [62] Nor, if, as is said, Philo, ** the famous architect, who built an arsenal for the Athenians, gave that people an eloquent account of his work, is it to be imagined that his eloquence proceeded from the art of the architect, but from that of the orator. Go on, therefore, as you are doing, young men, and apply earnestly to the study in which you are engaged, that you may be an honour to yourselves, an advantage to your friends, and a benefit to the republic.". After attaining the quaestorship, they aspired to the aedileship, and then to the praetorship and consulate. Cotta repeated to me many things then prophetically lamented and noticed by the three men of consular dignity in that conversation; so that no misfortune afterwards happened to the state which they had not perceived to be hanging over it so long before; [27] and he said that, when this conversation was finished, there was such politeness shown by Crassus, that after they had bathed and sat down to table, all the seriousness of the former discourse was banished; and there appeared so much pleasantry in him, and so much agreeableness in his humour that though the early part of the day might seem to have been passed by them in the senate-house, the banquet showed all the delights of the Tusculan villa. {19.} For the proper concern of an orator, as I have already often said, is language of power and elegance accommodated to the feelings and understandings of mankind. {8.} and of placing the wisdom of our own fellow-country-men above that of the Greeks in all departments; while Antonius held that his speeches would be the more acceptable to a nation like ours, if it were thought that be had never engaged in study at all. [48] For if any one pronounces him to be an orator who can speak fluently only on law in general, or on judicial questions, or before the people, or in the senate, he must yet necessarily grant and allow him a variety of talents; for he cannot treat even of these matters with sufficient skill and accuracy without great attention to all public affairs, nor without a knowledge of laws, customs, and equity, nor without understanding the nature and manners of mankind; and to him who knows these things, without which no one can maintain even the most minute points in judicial pleadings, how much is wanting of the knowledge even of the most important affairs? {5.} [3] For at our first entrance into life we fell amidst the disturbance ** of all ancient order; in my consulship we were involved in struggles and the hazard of everything; ** and all the time since that consulship we have had to make opposition to those waves which, prevented by my efforts from causing a general destruction, have abundantly recoiled upon myself. A. S. Wilkins. Ellendt and some others read Quae instead of Haec. Instead of civili, the old reading was civium, in accordance with which Lambinus altered descripto into descriptorum. Od. [54] But all these are thought to belong to the philosophers, nor will the orator, at least with my consent, ever deny that such is the case; but when he has conceded to them the knowledge of things, since they are willing to exhaust their labours on that alone, he will assume to himself the treatment of oratory, which without that knowledge is nothing. 27, 103. [31] For what is so admirable as that, out of an infinite multitude of men, there should arise a single individual, who can alone, or with only a few others, exert effectually that power which nature has granted to all ? Yet who doubts that we can produce, from this city alone, almost innumerable excellent commanders, while we can number scarcely a few eminent in speaking? . [XVI] [59] Sed quod erant quidam eique multi, qui aut in re publica propter ancipitem, ... [85] Ac tamen, quoniam de oratore nobis disputandum est, de summo oratore dicam necesse est; vis enim et natura rei, nisi perfecta ante oculos ponitur, qualis et quanta sit intellegi non potest. What can I say of that repository for all things, the memory, which, unless it be made the keeper of the matter and words that are the fruits of thought and invention, all the talents of the orator, we see, though they be of the highest degree of excellence, will be of no avail? For a time, indeed, as being ignorant of all method, and as thinking there was no course of exercise for them, or any precepts of art, they attained what they could by the single force of genius and thought. Cicero speaks of it as exilis, poor and dry, Brut. M. Tullius Cicero, De Oratore A. S. Wilkins, Ed. Obss. There, (as Cotta used to relate,) in order that the minds of them all might have some relaxation from their former discourse, Crassus introduced a conversation on the study of oratory. 15, says that the freedmen were previously dispersed among all the four city tribes, and that Gracchus included them all in the Esquiline tribe. Click on the L symbols to go to the Latin text of each section. 1 citation < Page 1/1. For it is by this one gift that we are most distinguished from brute animals, that we converse together, and can express our thoughts by speech. De oratore Cic.de orat.1,96-101 Crassus wird von Sulpicius und Cotta um eine systematische Darstellung seiner rhetorischen Vorstellungen gebeten Cic.de orat.1,96-101: Crassus wird von Sulpicius und Cotta um eine systematische Darstellung seiner Auffassung von Rhetorik gebeten . See I. H. Vossius ad Virg. And if Plato spoke divinely upon subjects most remote from civil controversies, as I grant that he did; if also Aristotle, and Theophrastus, and Carneades, were eloquent, and spoke with sweetness and grace on those matters which they discussed; let the subjects on which they spoke belong to other studies, but their speech itself, surely, is the peculiar offspring of that art of which we are now discoursing and inquiring. Cicéron . [20] L   In my opinion, indeed, no man can be an orator possessed of every praiseworthy accomplishment, unless he has attained the knowledge of everything important, and of all liberal arts, for his language must be ornate and copious from knowledge, since, unless there be beneath the surface matter understood and felt by the speaker, oratory becomes an empty and almost puerile flow of words. For often in those cases which all acknowledge properly to belong to orators, there is something to be drawn forth and adopted, not from the routine of the forum, which is the only knowledge that you grant to the orator, but from some of the more obscure sciences. But, at the expiration of his consulship, being impeached by Crassus, on what grounds we do not know, he put himself to death. [6] L   Often, indeed, as I review in thought the greatest of mankind, and those endowed with the highest abilities, it has appeared to me worthy of inquiry what was the cause that a greater number of persons have been admirable in every other pursuit than in speaking. And why need I add any remarks on delivery itself, which is to be ordered by action of body, by gesture, by look, and by modulation and variation of the voice, the great power of which, alone and in itself, the comparatively trivial art of actors and the stage proves, on which though all bestow their utmost labour to form their look, voice, and gesture, who knows not how few there are, and have ever been, to whom we can attend with, patience ? (28)   It is Lucilius the Satirist that is meant. Several alterations have been proposed, but none of them bring the sentence into a satisfactory state. Ellendt refers to Gaius, iv. [55] L   "On these matters I confess that Aristotle and Theophrastus have written. ** Or by what term will you discriminate the fertility and copiousness of speech in those whom I have named, from the barrenness of those who use not this variety and elegance of phrase? [15] The magnitude, the variety, the multitude of all kind of cases, excited them to such a degree, that to that learning which each had acquired by his individual study, frequent practice, which was superior to the precepts of all masters, was at once added. Henrichsen. M. TVLLI CICERONIS DE ORATORE Liber Primus: Liber Secundus: Liber Tertius. (8)   Prudentissimorum. Cicero, De Oratore - Book 3 , 1-81 . (29)   You granted me all that I desired when you said that all arts and sciences belong, as it were, respectively to those who have invented, or profess, or study them; . [88] These assertions Menedemus endeavoured to refute, but rather by authorities than by arguments; for, repeating from memory many noble passages from the orations of Demosthenes, he showed that that orator, while he swayed the minds of judges or of the people by his eloquence, was not ignorant by what means he attained his end, which Charmadas denied that any one could know without philosophy.

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